تاریخ: 5 بهمن 1398
Philosophy and Children on Volume 18

Dramaturgy of the Animation of the Line as a Pattern for Philosophy and Children

Nadia Maftouni

There are various ways and methods of explaining philosophical and theological problems for children, and giving answers to their questions. These methods can be associated with the intellectual and philosophical growth of children. One of the ways of attaining these methods is the dramaturgy of the works that are produced by others. Serial of the animation of the Line is considered to be one of the most efficient products in this field. In this serial, at least, five components come to the fore in the form of animation cartoon as follows:

1-The concept of God and His Attributes and Omnipresence, 2- emanation of the many from the one and the dependence of all other than God on the Creator, 3- man-God perpetual relation, supplication, and demanding various needs, thanksgiving, and thanklessness, 4- self-knowledge, thinking of oneself and of any basic changes in oneself, 5- expressing the moral virtues and vices, encouraging to good behaviors and discouraging bad behaviors. The fifth component is included in the majority of works on children, and is not considered to be the main characteristics of the serial of the Line.

Key words: Dramaturgy, animation of the Line, presence of the Creator, emanation of the many, dependence of other than God on the Creator, self-knowledge

 

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An Analysis of Contextualism and its Consequences in Richard Paul's Theory of "Fair-minded Critical Thinking"

Zahra Ommi and Ghasem Pourhasan

Richard Paul is a renowned thinker in the field of critical thinking who believes in the implementation of critical thinking in human decisions and actions. By analyzing reasoning and thinking, he found certain ideas that turned out to be significant in analyzing thinking. Here his contextualism is blatant which along with foundationalism and coherenticism seem to be a kind of reaction to skepticism. From this perspective, in epistemology, there is a turn towards social contexts. In this way, contextualism enjoys certain contextual elements such as actions, social relations, culture, and other human situations in justifying a belief or vice versa. Context, in this sense, can formulate Paul's inclination towards textulism, pluralism, and relativism. The main objective of the present work is to explore the consequences of Richard Paul's theory. Resolving the problem of contextualism by critical thinking is one of the Paul's innovations that so far has remained unnoticed. So universal attention towards his ideas made this research necessary for analyzing his views. According to this research, Paul has succeeded to follow a moderate method that contains in itself certain universal standards which at the same time attended to context. Consequently, in his fair-minded critical thinking, Paul has sought to be saved from falling into reductionism, and in this way he has succeeded to reduce the consequences of contextualism.

  Key words: critical thinking, contextualism, Richard Paul, human action

 

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From Traditional Schools to Government Schools: Rereading the Practical and Theoretical Motivations of Schools in Qajar Period

Reza Mahuzi

The history of traditional schools in Iran is the history of those traditional educations that tended to stagnation and unchanging. However, in recent millennium, we were not confronted only with a single tradition but within religious and cultural trends there were various educational traditions that came into existence in the form of traditional schools, schools, and mosque-schools. Yet this tradition in confrontation with the modern world and the social requirements of Iran in Qajar period failed to resist anymore and lost their tranquility and as a result compelled to change their standpoint. Hence, this tradition once in confrontation with modern private schools and then in confrontation with modern government schools were compelled to make some negative decision or at times positive decision; a decision that first were meant to confront them, but later on led to a kind of submission. The present paper tries to review the history of the changes of educational system in Iran from traditional school to modern one, and unfold those ideas that underpinned the changes in educational system of Iran in Qajar period.

Key words: School, Qajar, traditional school, modern sciences and technology, nation, government

 

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A Study of the Development of Ideas Concerning the Concept of Childhood in Ancient Iran

Majid Khari Arani and Akbar Rahnama

The present article proceeds to study the concept of childhood in ancient Iran with reference to certain documents including books and other sources. Research findings indicate that the organization of education in the last centuries was not the same in different places and times. In those days, families, fire temples, and teaching centers affiliated to the courts had undertaken the training of children and youth. Later on, primary schools and universities also came up and joined the same mission. Historically speaking, Iranians had special respect to knowledge, to the extent that, in their religious supplications, God was asked to grant knowledge to them. In the teachings of Zoroaster, one of the ways of attaining heaven is to make effort in educating people. For it is believed that through knowledge, evil and cruelty, as the signs of ignorance, will go away. In ancient Iran learning initiated from childhood and continued till old age ceaselessly. Education is meant for life, that is, knowledge and action go ahead hand in hand, and engulf the whole life and activity of man. In this system of education, man not only sought to attain certain moral virtues and intellectual principles, but also tried to learn some civil sciences and to implement in his practical life. The chief goal of education in ancient Iran was to bring children up to being theist and religious, possessing good moral, learning certain arts, and medical know-how. Concluding that as ancient remains show, the primary factors of education in ancient Iran were as follows: nature and geographical condition, the tenant of the Aryans as modified by Zoroaster, the role of religion in bringing children up and process of education.

Key words: ancient Iran, child, education, objectives of training

 

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Moral Training of Children from the Islamic Perspective

Atefeh Souhani

A proper and suitable moral training is a kind of force that can save man in certain tricky situations, and protect him from falling into misleading and stumbling paths. Obviously, when a work is done in its proper time and particular situation, it may yield its desirable result. Similarly, childhood period is also the best time for construction. Children are receptive to any kind of training. That is, they are eagerly ready to implement any idea and plan suggested for their training, and will not go away easily. It is very difficult to change those improper inherent moralities and characteristics in adult age. While, it is easy to lead back a child from any possible deviation that may appear before his way, and direct him towards right path. Accordingly, child age is the best period for construction and moral training. For, at this age, the mind of child has not yet found his final form and figure, and is apt to any kind of training for which parents are primarily responsible. Therefore, the present article is an attempt to shed some light on the issue of morality that primarily plays an important role in training, and then embarks upon addressing the issue of training, the way of communicating with children, pursuing stages of learning, and finally, the way of accepting the moral rules and regulations. From religious aspect, certain moral and ideological points concerning children will be explored.

Key words:  Morality, Child, moral training, training, Islam

 

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A Study of the Place of Cyberspace in Education: Opportunities and Threats

Kobra Ahmadvand, Zahra Taghyzade Ghavam, Samane Dastforoshan, and Soheila Gholami Haredashti

The present world is subjected to an increasing changes, and in this event, cyberspace has a great role to play. Basically, any change in different fields, including cultural and educational ones, may bring in its wake certain effects and consequences proportionate to its aims and functions, and cyberspace is not exceptional in this regard. Cyberspace apart from creating some opportunities may face certain challenges as well. Since education organization turns out to be one of the most effective factor in training children, it enjoys a particular place, and so the use of cyberspace seems to be inevitable. The present paper is aimed at exploring the place of cyberspace in education, and casting some light on its opportunities and threats in a descriptive and documental method. So if we learn to exploit it properly, we will be saved from its negative impacts. As an opportunity, cyberspace can bring about as a virtual training means, expenditure reduction, speeding up and unifying of data collection, and so on and so forth.

Key words: Cyberspace, Education, opportunities and threats

 

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Philosophical Patterns of Irano-Islamic Way of Training Children

 Masoomeh Zabihi

The presence of philosophy in Irano-Islamic thought differentiates the pattern of training of Iranian children with other nations. Since old time, philosophy considered to be the link between education and human civilization. The history of the human civilization also supports the view that Iran has been always the cradle of civilization, science, and philosophy, and following the rise of Islam, it succeeded to develop its activity anew and presented its achievements to the world.

In the lap of Islam, philosophical education of Iranians reached its zenith and maturity, and succeeded to leave behind certain particular patterns that have been followed by other nations, to the extent that, had there been no Iranian nationalistic feelings, other nations would have registered these patterns in their own names in the history of their culture. The present paper is an attempt to address these patterns, and review the impact of Irano-Islamic culture on them.

Key words: Philosophy, Iranians, patterns of training children



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