تاریخ: 18 دي 1396
Philosophy and Children on Volume 15

High Potential of Ancient Persian Literary Texts for the Indigenization of Philosophy and Children Sources

Murtaza Barati

Human mind has always been preoccupied with the question about the phenomena and seeks to find some answers for them. The age of philosophy is as long as human life. Yet, teaching “Philosophy and Children” is a new approach that seeks to rear children’s mental skills, reasoning power, and critical thinking. The present paper first seeks to address the well-known advocates’ opinions of “Philosophy and Children” and refers to its importance and necessity. Then it refers to teaching of “Philosophy and Children” in Iran, the necessity of its indigenization, and finally high potential of ancient Persian literary texts. It refers also to certain stories and anecdotes that can be included in the courses of teaching “Philosophy and Children”.

Key words:

“Philosophy and Children”

indigenization

ancient Persian literary texts

 

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A Study of the Impact of Teaching “Philosophy and Children” on Questioning Spirit and Anger Management of Primary Grade 4 Students of Babul City in 2015-2016

Mahdieh Tabari, Ali Khaleqkhah, Masud Moradi, and ‘Adel Zahed Babulan

The present work seeks to study the impact of teaching program of “Philosophy & Children” on the questioning spirit and anger management of students. This study covers the primary grade 4 boy students of Babul city in 2015-2016. In this research work, 22 boy students (11 students in experimental group, and 11 students in control group) were selected as a sample. In order to study the hypothesis of the work a semi-experimental method was adopted and a pre-test and post-test plan was conducted in control group. For collecting data the questionnaires of the questioning spirit and anger management were used as the sources. Within eight sessions (one session per-week, each session in ninety minutes) the students of experimental group were under the teaching program of philosophy for students. Philip Camp’s stories were subject matter of this study. At the end, data were analyzed on the basis of Covariance ANCOVA with software 20. The findings of this study confirmed the validity of program of philosophy for students in rearing the questioning spirit and anger management of the students.

Key words:

Philosophy and Children

questioning spirit

anger and its management

the circle of research

 

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Opportunities and Threats of Cyberspace in the Growth of Intelligence, Creativity, Sentiments, Rationality, Thought, and Life Styles of Children

 Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, and Shahrbanoo Olfateh

Today the development of cyberspace and network facilities in our country, and the attraction and tendency of children towards these facilities prompt us to utilize these opportunities to rear their capabilities. At the same time, there are certain threats and menaces lurking beneath such facilities which may undermine their moral and social foundations. The possibility of the outbreak of cultural and psychological insecurity as esteemed from such cyberspace facilities, along with the unfamiliarity of family members and the lack of control over their children made it necessary to take some logical measure to curb them. This work is aimed at studying the opportunities and threats of cyberspace in the rearing of children’s intelligence, creativity, sentiments, thinking power, and living styles. The present paper is an analytic-documental work for which qualitative and documental analysis have been used as well. In other words, documents have been studied and have been analyzed and assessed qualitatively. It is concluded that it is possible to overcome the threats and menaces of cyberspace and utilize them in rearing children’s intelligence. It is also possible to sort out a logical pattern in education of children, based on certain principles, to attain an internal insight which is manifested in three cognitive, emotional, and behavioral fields. It is the same insight which can safeguard them before the threats of cyberspace.

Key words:

cyberspace

opportunities and threats of cyberspace

growth of intelligence

creativity

thought

insight

 

 

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Educational Methods and Strategies Effective in Rearing Critical Thinking

Mansoreh Kalhor, and Golnar Mehran

One of the aims of education is to reinforce thinking and reasoning power. To achieve such aim is not possible only through imparting knowledge and information to the minds of students, but it is possible through including certain methods in the programs of schools through which students may learn when, how and which questions should be raised and which reasonable method should be applied. These skills could be developed through exercising critical thinking as exists in different courses. The necessity of rearing various skills of critical thinking is due to the rapid changes of societies, technology, expansion of various fields of science, and the development of knowledge and information. The old skills once upon a time were suitable, but at present they fail to prepare them to confront with contemporary problems and challenges. To reinforce thinking power requires preparing certain condition and applying certain educational methods and strategies as effective in critical thinking. The present article primarily seeks to study the concept, skills, and the characteristics of critical thinking, then proceeds to study conceptual map as one of the educational methods and strategies effective in the development of critical thinking.

Key words:

critical thinking

education

teaching methods of philosophy and children

 

 

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“Philosophy and Children” as a Philosophy for Life

Nawwab Moqarrabi*

Since long ago there has been a close relationship between philosophy and practical life of men. Philosophers always look for a meaning of human life; the meaning that not only could make human life meaningful, but also stills human spiritual and intellectual pains. Keeping this in view, philosophy turns out to be a kind of healer. Psychology seeks to treat man’s psych, while philosophy seeks to do so human thought. A great deal of our pains and troubles are rooted in our thoughts and have nothing to do with external factors. The present paper is an attempt to deal with those views, ideas and, at times, certain techniques that philosophers in general, and Islamic philosophers and Stoics in particular have used to apply for the treatment of certain mental diseases, and they act as a practical guide in the program for philosophy and children as well. The creative idea of the present paper is to propose practical and philosophical exercises which have been regulated for educational workshops with an approach of philosophy as a way of life and treatment.

Key words: 

philosophy and children

method of life

mental diseases

philosophical techniques

philosophical treatment

 

 

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A Study of the Horizons and Intricacies of Cyberspace and Internet and their Impact on the Moral Education with Reference to Social Networks

Amir Muradi, and Muhsen Kurdlu

Technology and its last achievements, technology of information, exercise a wide and considerable influence on various fields of human life including education. Moreover, its horizons and intricacies are apt to be assessed from different aspects such as moral education. Hence, the main objective of the present article is to explore the horizons and intricacies of cyberspace and internet and assess its impact on moral education. The following questions are to be answered: what is the relationship between cyberspace and internet with moral education? What are the horizons and intricacies of cyberspace and internet for moral education? The methodology of the article is analytic-descriptive and enjoys a qualitative content. The outcomes of the research indicate that the most important horizons of the cyberspace and internet are: easy accessibility to information sources on moral education, teaching moral issues through cyberspace, bringing about cooperation and enhancing social spirit, the existence of cultural varieties, enforcement of collective rationality and free speech and thoughts. Moreover, its most important problems are: deconstruction, augmentation of social solitude, the danger of the formation of abnormal entities, endangering the teaching of important human values, destruction of the identities rather than construction of the identities, bringing about cyberspace intimacies, spread of the culture of immorality and breaching privacy of people.

Key words:

cyberspace

internet

moral education

social networks

 

 

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Sociological Ideas of Childhood Age in Persian

Literature

Michail Rasulzadeh

The new studies of childhood in general and the sociology of childhood in particular commenced in the world half a century ago, and at present it is going ahead and expanding rapidly, but this issue still remains unknown in Iran. There have been always certain discussions about children in traditional approach, but in modern approach children and their demands have remained unnoticed. Modern sociology of children, both assists the cognition of the child, his world, and his needs, and leads to the creation of a kind of literature compatible with the new values of children. Childhood values have nothing to do with those of the mature age; however, since children literature have been created by the mature ones, as a result, the former have been developed based on the values of the latter. Sociologically speaking, the concept of childhood is basically rooted in modern age. Children not only remain unnoticed but also have been put aside. Indeed, owing to their particular situation, that is, being subordinated to others, children in sociological theories and conceptualizations were not treated primarily. Moreover, following the Second World War certain changes took place such as the rise of the feminist movements, development of the structure of government and social welfare, relative enhancement of health services, changes in family structure and futurology and the development of sciences. All these changes led to the development of new studies of childhood age and based on certain structural and interpretative theories three views came up as follows: 1- Childhood in a period of life forms a particular structure in which they live out and is considered to be a part of society as well. 2- Children are themselves builders of society and childhood age. 3- Like elders children are subjected to similar social forces. This paper is an attempt to study the ideas of childhood age in Persian literature as depicted in Sa‘di’s Gulistan. In this study Sa‘di has been referred to as the poet of education and the representative of early generation and Parvin E‘tisami as the representative of later and new generation. Though this study may deem to be meager, it can pave the way for an important task. In this paper we offer the word, “interpretative reproduction” in which the two key elements of language and cultural processes will be studied.

Key words:

childhood age

sociology of childhood age

constructive and structural approaches


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