تاریخ: 28 دي 1395
Philosophy and Children on Volume 12

A Structured Study of Teaching Philosophizing in Iranian Schools

Yusuf Seifzad: PhD candidate of Comparative Philosophy

 

The teaching of philosophy at the three standard levels (cognitive, affective, and motor) at schools has only been limited to the first level. In fact, it has rarely ever had a tendency to progress to higher levels and only relies on memorization. Moreover, it abounds in teaching the history of different schools of philosophy. However, the new method of teaching philosophy seems to advocate the promotion of philosophizing and thinking on the part of students so that, in addition to learning the best ways in this regard, they manage to perceive the fundamental problems of life. Moreover, the new method, through following a research-oriented approach and reinforcing creative thinking, helps the children to form some insights and views the internalization of which would enable them to employ some rational and constructive strategies and tendencies in life. The present paper deals with the most important dimensions and strategies which contribute to the stability of such methods. Some of them include paying attention to writing dialogs and dialog-orientedness, question-orientedness and the development of a critical mind, situationalism and necessity, process-orientedness and development of intellectual abilities, problem-orientedness and practicing problem-solving, pragmatism and modernity, and efficiency and effectiveness. Unfortunately, the teaching of philosophy in Iran does not seem to employ such strategies.

Key Terms

education

philosophizing

creative thinking

 

 

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?Is the “Philosophy for Children” Program Based on a Neutral and Presupposition-Free Plan

Nawab Moqarrabi: PhD in Philosophy, nawabmoqarrabi@gmail.com

A question which demands our serious attention with regard to the Philosophy for Children Program is whether it is based on a neutral plan which lacks any presupposition, or whether it merely provides a new teaching method which is free from any kind of prejudgment and biased content. The founders of this program believe that it represents a method which lacks judgment and does not follow any ideology, and that is why it can be employed in any society with any culture, language, religion, and traditions. However, some authorities in the field, particularly those who aim to launch an indigenous version of this program in Iran in conformity with Iranian-Islamic ethical and moral values and standards, believe in the opposite. They argue that this program, both in terms of method and content, is based on a philosophical design which abounds in prejudgments, presuppositions, and ideologies which are basically rooted in Western culture, philosophy, and lifestyle. Therefore, unlike what its founders and advocates claim, it is in no way an impartial and neutral program or method whose content can be matched with the culture and moral values of each and every society.

Key Terms

philosophy and children

nativization

pre-supposition

methodology

content analysis

 

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Necessity of Piety and Faith for the Philosophical Education

of Children (with an Emphasis on the Qur’an and the

(Words of the Imams and Infallibles

 

Ahmadreza Azerbaijani (Azar): PhD candidate of Philosophy and Education, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch

Alireza Faqihi: Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch

 

If we consider the attainment of the truth as the purpose of education, we will face three basic questions: Is truth a discoverable entity? Is  truth an attainable entity? Is truth a constructible entity? Then a related question would be: How could we attain the truth? In the course of history various educational systems have suggested different ideas regarding the inclusion of philosophy and philosophizing in children’s education. The process of the philosophical education of children in Iran and in the world is moving forward and has both serious advocates and opponents. The lack of this process can result in the development of a society which is void of reflection, flexibility, and dynamism and paves the way for the growth of certain dogmatic trends such as ISIS, Salafism, and Takfir. On the other hand, if the basis of our philosophical education is not correct, it might result in the development of an isolated and skeptic society. Besides, it might even lead to a kind of pluralism without any perception of monotheism while denying some evident affairs and entities such as God. This study examines the importance of piety and faith in the philosophical education of children through relying on the Qur’an and the words of the Infallibles (a).

 

Key Terms

intellect

philosophy

piety

faith

philosophical training

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The Relationship between Imagination and Consumption in Computer Games

Seyyed Mehdi Nazemi Qarebagh: PhD in Philosophy, University of Isfahan

Imagination is a very important term which is frequently used in both Islamic and contemporary philosophies. Many of the characteristics of human beings and the periods succeeding classical schools of philosophy can be interpreted with reference to the imaginal aspect of human existence. In Mulla Sadra’s view, some aspects of the world of imagination can change depending on the differences among human beings. Consumerism and the realization of consumer society are also considered to be among the most important features of the contemporary world so that the cultural values of people seem to have been influenced by the necessities of consumer societies. In their common sense, games primarily and essentially deal with imagination, too. Given the status of today’s human being and the relationship between games and a non-transcendent and consumer imagination, computer games can be viewed as an important embodiment of  two elements of non-transcendent imagination and consumerism. What makes them susceptible to such as interpretation is their technological essence. In fact, in its technological and media form, games represent a limitless form of consumerism and embody an absurd kind of imagination which are rooted in mathematical thinking.

Key Terms

imagination

imaginal world

consumer society

technique

computer games

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Philosophy of Play and its Role in Children’s Intellectual Growth Based on P4C

 

Kobra Ahmadvand: PhD candidate of Philosophy of Education, International Kharazmi Pardis, Tehran

Soheila Gholami Hardashti: MA in Philosophy of Education

Hamid Ahmadi Hedayat: PhD candidate of Philosophy of Education, Shahed University

Undoubtedly, different physical and mental activities are necessary for human growth. Children also need to perform various activities because of going through the most important period of their growth. In fact, playing can have an effective role in satisfying their need for performing both mental and physical activities. However, games have various functions such as promoting children’s intellectual growth, which certainly reinforces intelligent behavior and provides the necessary conditions for language learning and cognitive development of children. The most important feature of thought-provoking games, particularly in the field of philosophy and children, is their contribution to intellectual growth, which is realized through employing some tools such as toys, stories, films, animations, and pictures. Following a deductive approach, this study indicates that playing games accelerates children’s physical and mental growth and provides an environment where their thoughts can be developed in the best way possible. This requires the actualization of their potential for creativity, which demands the development of their imagination in the process of play. Accordingly, it is necessary to provoke their curiosity during this process by creating a challenging and exciting atmosphere.

Key Terms

philosophy of play

intellectual growth

teaching philosophy to children

 

 

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A Return to the Reality of Self: A Philosophical-Moral Analysis of the Little Prince

Saeideh Qayemi Majd: MA student of Philosophy of Ethics, University of Zanjan

Moral criticism is one of the important branches of literary criticism which has always resulted in controversial discussions since ancient times. That is why it is necessary to emphasize the moral criticism of literary works. This paper provides a critique of The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, the contemporary French writer. It has been translated into more than 100 languages and is one of the most read books all over the world. It was one of the most popular books of the 20th century, and that is why it was called the Book of the Century. In this paper, the writer initially deals with each of the characters of the story in terms of their nature and essential characteristics and explains the author’s intention of writing this book. Here, he portrays the different stages of his own wayfaring and, through an analysis of these stages, refers to the important point of the little prince’s return to his hometown, which is his very true self after going through the different stages of his wayfaring. This indicates the influence of Eastern gnosis on the creation of this work. The present paper examines The Little Prince following a philosophical-moral approach.

Key Terms

The Little Prince

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

truth of self

morality

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A Comparison of the Personality Characteristics, Identity

Styles, and Thrill-Seeking of Internet Addict and Non-

Addict Male High School Students

 

Azadeh Mehrpooyan: Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Young Researchers and Elite  Club, Tehran, Iran, dr.mehrpooyan@gmail.com

Saeed Shaikhi: Islamic Azad University, Abdanan Branch, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ilam, Iran, saeedsheikhi 2000@yahoo.com

Morad Shahmoradi: MA in General Psychology, moradshahmoradi@gmail.com

 

The present study aimed to compare the personal characteristics, identity styles, and sensation seeking trait of internet addict and non-addict male high school students. It was based on a causal-comparative design. The participants consisted of 290 male students who were chosen based on the convenience sampling method from among the population of 1200 first grade high school students in Abdanan. In order to measure the variables of the study, Young’s Internet Addiction Questionnaire (1998), a shorter version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Neo-PI-R), Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (1964), and Berzonsky’s Identity Styles Inventory (1992) were used. SPSS software, version 20, was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics, including score frequencies, percentiles, mean, and standard deviation, were computed for each data distribution, and inferential statistics, namely, the t-test, was employed to test the significance of the differences between the obtained mean scores. The results indicated that there were significant differences between internet addict and non-addict male students with regard to their personal characteristics. Internet addicts were more neurotic than non-addicts. The mean scores of non-addicts were significantly higher than addicts regarding the variables of extroversion, acceptability, and conscientiousness. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to openness to experience. The difference between the addicts and non-addicts’ mean scores on the Identity Style Inventory was also significant. The internet addicts obtained a significantly higher mean score on diffused/avoidant and normative dimensions of identity styles comparing to non-addicts However, non-addicts’ informational style mean score was significantly higher than that of addicts. Finally, there was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the sensation seeking variable and its four dimensions (errantry, experience-seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility).

 

Key Terms

internet addiction

personality characteristics

identity styles and sensation seeking


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