تاریخ: 5 خرداد 1394
Philosophy and Children on Volume 7

Place of Ethics in Philosophy for Children based on the Analysis of Philosophy in the Discourse of the Transcendent Philosophy

 

Ahad Faramarz Qaramaleki*

 

The analysis of the place of ethics in philosophy for children is based on a study of philosophy at four levels: philosophical study (including philosophical experience and thought), research on philosophy, teaching philosophy, and reading philosophy. The last three are based on the fundamental concept of philosophical study, which enjoys two theoretical and practical modes in the Islamic-Greek tradition. Here, the important concept of wayfaring connects the two modes with each other. The perfection of the soul and seeking resemblance to God depend on the same wayfaring. In the Transcendent Philosophy, the perfection of the soul means the trans-substantial perfection of the soul and seeking perfection in the primary perfection (of the soul) rather than attaining secondary perfections. Therefore, philosophical study in the real sense of the word is accompanied by the ontological transformation of individuals, which is the basis of moral transformation. A philosophical teaching and reading which lacks such a transformation is the same as eloquence, oratory, practicing the transfer of words, and filling the mind with related and unrelated words. Based on such an interpretation of philosophical study, philosophy for children enjoys an ethical nature and emphasizes children’s ontological growth and transformation.

 

Key Terms

discourse of the Transcendent Philosophy

perfection of the soul

philosophical study

ontological transformation

moral education

 

 

* Professor, Department of Islamic Philosophy, Tehran University.

 

 

***

The Ladder-Like Process of Thinking and Imagination in Farabi

 

Nadia Maftuni1 and Mahmoud Nouri2

 

The relationship between imagination and thinking deserves rigorous scrutiny. For example, one might ask whether the creative acts of the imaginal faculty will lead to reflection and rational perception. Farabi believes that imagination enjoys some graded creativities and has the ability to preserve the images of sensible things, compare and combine them with each other, and create images from other forms and even meanings and concepts. He also maintains that Man can dress intelligibles, meanings, and concepts, whether practical or theoretical, in the robe of imagination and present them to the sense perception of the addressee. After receiving and perceiving them through their senses, the addressees ascend to the level of intelligibles using the ladder of imagination. If these intelligibles are obtained from arguments or revelation, they mirror happiness. As a result, the addressees approximate the station of argumentation or revelation on the ladder of imagination and attain happiness. If universals and concepts such as viciousness, defect, and other vices are imagined, the addressees descend to the level of adversity and wickedness.

 

Key Terms

thinking

imagination

creativity

Farabi

 

1. Assistant Professor, Tehran University.

2. PhD Candidate, Art University.

 

 

***

Training and Educating Children and Adolescents in Aristotle

 

Mohsen Jahed*

 

The Greeks generally paid great attention to the training and education of children and adolescents. Yet, it is Socrates who is considered to be the initiator of theoretical discussions in this regard. Following him, Plato and Aristotle took some big steps forward concerning the philosophy of ethics and education and provided a number of useful views in this regard. Aristotle accepted some of the ethical-educational ideas of Plato and Socrates, while he criticized some others. Finally, he introduced a new approach based on his own philosophy. This paper intends to explain the theoretical bases of his educational theory and recommendations. Besides, by referring to the views of the commentators of Aristotle, it aims to pave the way for understanding his ethical-educational thoughts by clarifying some of the ambiguities in this regard.

 

Key Terms

Aristotle

training

virtue

habit

 

* Assistant Professor, Philosophy Department, Zanjan University.

 

 

***

Place of Creativity in Training Children in the View of the Infallible Imams (a)

 

Mujtaba Fa’iq*

 

Man is creative by Nature. In the changing world of today, creativity is an important condition for survival. Relying on their creative abilities for solving problems, people find reasonable solutions, match themselves with changes, and satisfy their needs.

In the teachings and traditions of the Infallible Imams (a), creativity is viewed as a basic human principle in training children. The most important type of creativity which has been emphasized in Islamic traditions is creativity in reasoning in religious discussions and principles. The main pillars of creativity, based on the teachings of the Infallible Imams (a), are as follows: parents, teachers, children, and useful sciences, which are themselves based on religious and kalami sciences.

There are different methods of developing creativity based on the Imams’ approach during childhood, teenage years, and youth. During childhood, creativity is developed through storytelling and playing thought-provoking games; during teenage years, it is developed through observation and trial and error; during youth, this is done through counseling.

 

Key Terms

creativity

creative thinking

logical thinking

training of children

traditions of the Infallible Imams (a)

 

 

* PhD Candidate of Theology at Nahjul Balaghah Research Center, Instructor at Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch.

 

 

***

Significance and Role of Story Telling in the Program of Philosophy for Children

 

 ‘Atefeh Yusefi*

 

Stories are one the most important and effective tools for teaching philosophy to children. The indirect expression of ideas through stories, while having a greater impact on readers or listeners, enables them to identify themselves with the characters of the story to a greater extent. Reading and listening to stories improves the speaking and listening skills of children and develops their imagination and thinking powers. The present paper reports on a library and documentary research on the role and application of stories in the program of philosophy for children. Here, the writer has explained the different types of story, their characteristics, objectives, and differences, and the difference between philosophical and ordinary stories. The stories used in this program are generally divided into two groups: stories specifically written for this program and all other stories (such as children’s stories, folktales, and literary works) provided that they have the characteristics of philosophical stories, including literary, psychological, and intellectual value, promoting research and inquiry, provoking discussion, and stimulating imagination. In addition to the content of the story, the questions posed at the end of each could direct the children’s thoughts to specific directions and encourage them to deliberate more profoundly on the ideas in the content of the stories.

 

Key Terms

story

teaching philosophy

philosophy for children

characteristics of philosophical stories

 

 

* MA in Persian Language and Literature.

 

 

***

A Comparative Study of Intellectual training in the Views of Imam Ali (a) and John Dewey

 

Sepideh Ensafi Mehrabani1 and M‘asumeh Modawwar2

 

Many studies indicate that the reasons for the failure of educational systems should be sought in the shortage of clear-cut models and programs dictating the duties of counselor-instructors, which is, by itself, rooted in the shortage of theoretical principles underlying educational activities. This is because any program, model, and job description is developed according to a theoretical basis or framework. In this paper, the writers have tried to compare the idea of intellectual training in the words of Imam Ali (a) and John Dewey. In doing so, they have conducted a library research following the method of one of the most prominent researchers in the field of education called George Z.F. Bereday. Given the words of the Commander of the Faithful (a), in this paper intellectual training can be defined as the cultivation of the intellect in terms of both theoretical and practical aspects in order to attain specific goals. These goals, according to Imam Ali (a), are as follows: gaining proximity to God, attaining knowledge, developing faith, and putting knowledge to good practice. We also infer from his words that the methods of intellectual training include: accumulating knowledge, thinking, profound deliberation, collecting experience, seeking the truth, and self-purification.

John Dewey also considers intellectual training to be the transfer of relatively random curiosity and accidental thoughts to intelligent tendencies and cautious and meticulous research and proposes some goals and methods for it. He believes that the goal of education or training should be extracted from the educational trend. He disagrees with the imposition of goals on individuals from the outside and equates the means with the end. He also proposes a method of problem solving for intellectual training. As a result, the writers see just a few common points but several differences in the words of Imam Ali (a) and John Dewey concerning intellectual training.

 

Key Terms

training

intellectual training

John Dewey

1. MA holder, ‘Allamah Tabataba’i University.

2. MA holder, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch.

 

 

***

A Happy and Joyful School Environment for Children

 

 ‘Atefeh Sohani*

 

Living in today’s world of new, diverse, and complicated phenomena inevitably demands certain types of knowledge, abilities, and facilities. Here, our teenagers need a delightful environment for living a happy life. Now that most houses in cities have turned into small apartments lacking any kind of play areas, the least we can do in order to provide for their physical and mental health is to create a happy and joyful atmosphere at schools. By creating appropriate spaces at schools we can contribute significantly to our children’s living a happy life. In order to actualize the idea of having a happy school environment, the views of the authorities in the training and educational system must undergo serious changes. In fact, creating a happy school environment demands our attention to both external and spiritual dimensions of this idea. The present paper initially deals with the meaning of being happy according to Islam and psychologists. Then it examines the problem from the point of view of the training and education system. Finally, the writer presents some appropriate strategies and suggestions for creating a happy and joyful school environment.

 

Key Terms

happiness

children

training and education

school

 

* PhD Candidate of the Philosophy of Training and Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran.



نام
رایانامه
* متن نظر