تاریخ: 28 مرداد 1392
Philosophy and Children on Volume 1

Philosophy for Children in the Transcendent Philosophy: A New Name for Ancient Methods

 

Nawwab Muqarrabi


Reliance on Western methods in teaching philosophy or philosophical methods to children, although useful in its own place, is not much appropriate in the Iranian-Islamic culture and society and might result in some inverse and unfavorable consequences. The main problem tackled in this paper is if we can find anything called “Philosophy and Children” in the Transcendent Philosophy, or if philosophy for children is a modern method the application of which to the wisdom and philosophy of early scholars is not permissible and does not result in useful outcomes.

Undoubtedly, “philosophy and children” does not mean the teaching of philosophical ideas to children. In fact, it is a method of teaching and training that relies on certain philosophical methods and approaches such as “Socratic dialog”.

The Transcendent Philosophy is based on the intellect, intuition, and tradition. The truth is that in the learning and teaching of this school, “training” is prior to “teaching”. The Transcendent Philosophy is based on a kind of religious way of living. The Western–Greek way of life is by no means superior to this method of living. In other words, the way of life in the Transcendent Philosophy is based on a series of principles and rules that are only meaningful and conceivable within the framework of the same way of life. In fact, comparing it with other methods is a false analogy. Therefore, the instructions of “philosophy and children” can only be derived from Mulla Sadra’s Transcendent Philosophy, in particular, and Iranian-Islamic philosophy, in general.

 

 

Key Terms

philosophy and children

The Transcendent Philosophy

intuition

tradition

priority of training over teaching

 

Role of Teaching in Promoting Creativity

in Children

 

Alireza Amin and Reza Mahoozi


Promoting creativity and rationality is a problem that can be studied from different angles. It can be claimed that the cultural and scientific strength of each society is based on its intellectual capabilities. Therefore, it is necessary that the authorities focus on the required investments and employ enough accuracy in order to foster such capabilities during childhood. This paper emphasizes the techniques and methods useful for obtaining this goal rather than the necessity of the goal itself, which demands an extensive discussion by itself. In doing so, after explaining the principles and details of correct teaching and the qualities and constructive interactions between teachers and students, the writers refer to Ibn Sina’s teaching method, which is based on the peripheral thinking approach, as an example of a collection of techniques leading to the rise of creativity in children.

 

 

Key Terms

creativity

teaching

teaching methodology

Ibn Sina

peripheral thinking

 


 

 


 



A Deliberation over the Role of Parents in the Philosophical Training of Children

 

Vahideh ‘Ameri


The project of philosophy and children, which has the fostering of creative and responsible thinking in children as its main purpose, intends to introduce a new direction in the philosophical training of children and, in doing so, open a new window towards a productive future. Nevertheless, it seems that in this huge project, the role of parents, particularly mothers, as the first and most important source of education has been ignored. Therefore, it is recommended that the authorities pay attention to this point and try to introduce this project to parents and familiarize them closely with its main goals.

Several methods and approaches can be employed at a large scale in order to familiarize parents with this project. In this regard, we can refer to the development of supplementary books and distributing them in society, producing some educational films and competition programs for TV, and training parents in philosophy classes in cultural centers.

 

 

Key Terms

philosophy and children

philosophical training

parents

creativity

 

 

 


 

 


 

 

 



Potentials of Islamic Philosophy for Child Training and the Obstacles before it

Murteza Bahrani


This paper intends to provide answers to the following questions: 1) What are the potentials of Islamic philosophy for child training? and 2) If these potentials have not been openly used in the history of Islamic philosophy, what are the obstacles that stand in the way of training in this school? Therefore, in this paper, the writer deals with the two affirmative and negative dimensions of Islamic philosophy concerning the subject of children and training during childhood and brings some arguments demonstrating the existence of the obstacles that impede the treatment of children and training during childhood in Islamic philosophy. One of them stems from the definition of philosophy in Muslim’s intellectual tradition. Traditionally, philosophers’ definition of philosophy, which was also the dominant definition, denies the possibility of social and educational responsibilities to it. The second obstacle is related to the nature of limiting the intellect to philosophers. While in social and educational philosophy it is indicated that normal people also enjoy the gift of the intellect, in the texts of Islamic philosophy, we observe that intellection and, in a sense, philosophizing is exclusively for a specific group of people. Moreover, philosophers’ lack of belief in the idea that human beings are civil by nature has denied to them the responsibility of training children and the possibility of dealing with the subject of children. Nevertheless, the same philosophy has certain potentials for such important tasks from some angles. In this regard, we can refer to the teaching of reasoning and critical thought, on the one hand, and living a philosophical life, on the other. The latter is the same as philosophy as experience, which suggests living like a philosopher. Following this line, the philosopher goes into the society, particularly among children, and transfers his philosophical findings to them as a living experience.

 

 

Key Terms

Islamic philosophy

child

training in childhood

obstacles

potentials


 

 



Children and Intellectual Stories of Shahnameh

Ma‘sumah Zabihi


Since long ago, man has tried to provoke the interests and thoughts of listeners and readers through story telling. This technique has always been used as an important tool in the field of education and training. A story is a means to provoke thoughts, questions, and creativity in human beings and help them to learn about more profound concepts. In Shahnameh, the stories easily absorb the addressees and make them begin thinking to discover the answers to their questions.

Childhood is the beginning of the process of responding to questions and receiving a correct and disciplined training for a lifetime.

Regarding its attention to children, Shahnameh can be discussed from three aspects:

1. Explanation of the characteristics of childhood

2. Effects of childhood on other periods of life and the importance of such effects

3. Advantages of introducing a collection of simplified stories of Shahnameh to children’s literature and familiarizing them with thinking, responding to questions, being creative, and training their minds in life.

The stories should be in harmony with the native, national, and religious culture of children. This point can be observed in the stories of Shahnameh provided that they are rewritten in a simple and fluent language, so that they can persuade children to think, have dialogs with others, and become involved in philosophical inquiry. In this way, they will be able to taste the sweetness of wisdom.

It is at this point that thinking begins in society. At higher ages, it is not necessary for a group to think and decide for another group at all times. However, we should not forget that Qur’anic teachings are above all recommendations and suggestions in showing the right way to human beings from childhood to old ages.

In this paper, while examining the above-mentioned points and providing some examples from Shahnameh, some strategies for disseminating the reading of Shahnameh in today’s world will be presented.

 

Key Terms

child

creativity

thinking

literature

wisdom

Shahnameh

 


Correction of Juvenile Delinquents in the Light of Philosophy and Children

 

Reyhaneh Rikhtehgar


The concern about imprisonment, which has become increasingly common now, is not a new problem. Denying freedom to criminals and keeping them out of society is apparently the simplest solution that comes to the minds of legislators in order to protect people against them. However, the question is if it is the best way or not.

As a method of punishment, imprisonment has some side-effects, which are not hidden to anyone. Since children are the most defenseless victims of this method, perhaps it is now the right time to suggest a more effective and appropriate way without any further harmful consequences. This should be a way that decreases the possibility of committing crimes in the future rather than increasing it.

It is necessary to emphasize that punishment is not limited to imprisonment and payment of blood money; rather, presently it refers to any corrective method that helps criminals to follow the right path. For example, there are cases in which judges have decreed the writing of a paper instead of serving time in prison. Such verdicts herald the beginning of a new era in punishment. We should not forget that, in order to correct behavior, we initially need to correct thought. Undoubtedly, children create the future of each society, and spending time on correcting their thoughts and, following it, their behavior will certainly be fruitful and constructive.

Given the above explanations, it is advisable to employ the “Philosophy and Children” program in order to help juvenile delinquents to leave the process of punishment safely behind. More than any other child, these children need this extra attention so that what their parents did not do or fail to do for them is compensated for.

 

Key Terms

child

law

crime

correction

rights

 


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